Handbook of Machining with
Grinding Wheels

by
loan D. Marinescu
Mike Hitchiner
Eckart Uhlmann
W. Brian Rowe
Ichiro Inasaki
596 pages, illustrated with graphs and charts
ISBN 1-57444-671-1
$179 plus shipping (subject to change)
ORDER/INFORMATION REQUEST
or call 724-282-6210 for phone order.
The first comprehensive book on the use of grinding wheels in over a decade. Includes details for applications of diamond and CBN superabrasives as well as conventional abrasives. Written by well known experts from Japan, the US, and Europe, this is a complete discussion of the use of grinding wheels in production applications covering topics ranging from the basics of material removal to design and control of machine tools. For the first time a single publication covering the lastest data on proper use of centerless, ID, OD, and surface grinding machine tools. Application notes throughout show practical, real-world examples of a variety of common materials. A totally new book, this work reflects the state-of-the-art on topics such as control of chatter, workpiece burn, use of CBN, machine tool sensors, and much more.



NOTES FROM THE PREFACE
Called the "Handbook of Machining with Grinding Wheels because the borders between grinding and other operations such as superfinishing, lapping, polishing, and flat honing are no longer distinct. Machining with grinding wheels extends from high-removal rate processes into the domains of ultra-high accuracy and superfinishing. This book aims to explore some of the new "transition operations,"...
This book presents a wide range of abrasive machining technology in fundamental and application terms. The emphasis is on why things happen as they do, rather than a how-to-do-it approach. The topics covered in this book cover a range of abrasive machining processes with grinding wheels, making this probably the most complete book regarding all kinds of grinding operations."

...loan D. Marinescu Toledo, 2006



THE AUTHORS


Ioan D. Marinescu
professor of mechanical, industrial, and manufacturing engineering at the University of Toledo
director of the Precision Micro?Machining Center of the College of Engineering (www.eng.utoledo.edu/pmmc)
member of numerous international professional organizations: JSPE, SME, ASME, ASPE, CIRP, IDA, ASAT, and NAMRI.
author of more than 15 books and over 300 technical and scientific papers. founded his own company, Advanced Manufacturing Solutions Co., LLC, a company that specializes in consulting, R&D, manufacturing, and trade (www.interams.com)

Mike Hitchiner
doctorate in 1982 at the University of Oxford for research in grinding and machining with cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamonds.
technology manager for precision grinding applications for North America, as well as projects throughout Asia and Europe for . Saint?Gobain Abrasives (SGA) and its affiliate companies e

Eckart Uhlmann
director of the Fraunhofer?Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK
professor of machine tools and manufacturing technology at the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management of the Technical University in Berlin, Germany.
doctorate in engineering on "Creep Feed Grinding of High?Strength Ceramic Materials."
professional memberships in the Berlin Wissenschaftskommission, the Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, and the International Institution for Production Engineering Research.
honorary doctorate from Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan, Malaysia.

W. Brian Rowe
experience with Austin Motor Company, Birmingham, England, and Wickman Machine Tools, Coventry, England.
Ph.D. for research on the mechanics of centerless grinding and tribology.
head of mechanical engineering at Liverpool John Moores University director of the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Research Laboratory (AMTREL)
published with them more than 250 scientific papers, patents, and books including Design of Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearings in 1982 and Tribology of Abrasive Machining Processes in 2004.

Ichiro Inasaki
Dean of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University,
doctorates at Keio University in 1969 and honorary Dr.?Ing. at Hanover University, Germany, in 1999.
fellow of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Japan Society of Precision Engineering, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, and served as
president for CIRP between 2004 and 2005.
Editor of international journals including the International Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production, Machining Science and Technology, International Journal of Production Engineering and Computers, Journal of Engineering Manufacture (IMechE), and Journal of Nanotechnology and Precision Engineering for years to date.
Awards from Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1969, 1987, 1997, and 1999, the Japan Society for Precision Engineering in 1992 and 2005, the Japan Society for Abrasive Technology in 1980 and 1998, the Japanese Society of Tribologists in 2003, and the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (F. W. Taylor Research Medal) in 2005. His dedicated efforts have been condensed in books, publications in journals, and more than 300 papers in the field of manufacturing engineering.

TABLE OF CONTENT (ABBREVIATED)
click for a more complete table of contents and other materials

Part I
  The Basic Process of Grinding   I

Chapter 1  
  Introduction     3
  1.1  From Craft to Science   3
  1.2  Basic Uses of Grinding   4
  1.3  Elements of the Grinding System   4    
  1.4  The Importance of the Abrasive   6
  1.5  Grinding Wheels for a Purpose   7
  1.6  Problem-Solving   7    
  References   8

Chapter 2 Grinding Parameters   9

  2.1  Introduction   9    
  2.2  Process Parameters   11    
  2.3  Grinding Temperatures   18
  Appendix 2.1 Drawing Form and Profile Tolerancing   21
  References     21

Chapter 3 Material Removal Mechanisms     23
  3.1  Significance   23    
  3.2  Grinding Wheel Topography   24    
  3.3  Determination of Grinding Wheel Topography   25    
  3.4  Kinematics of the Cutting Edge Engagement   29
  3.5  Fundamental Removal Mechanisms   31
  3.6  Material Removal in Grinding of Ductile Materials   32
  3.7  Surface Formation in Grinding of Brittle/Hard Materials 35    
  3.8  Energy Transformation   41
  References   42

Chapter 4 Grinding Wheels   45
  4.1  Introduction   45    
  4.2  Wheel Shape Specification    46
  4.3  Wheel Balance     49
  4.4  Design of High?Speed Wheels     54
  4.5  Bond Life   61
  4.6  Wheel Mount Design   61
  4.7  Wheel Design and Chatter Suppression     71  
  References     73

Chapter 5 The Nature of the Abrasive     75
  5.1  Introduction   75
  5.2  Silicon Carbide     75
  5.3  Alumina (Alox)-Based Abrasives   76
  5.4 Electrofused Alumina Abrasives     76
  5.5  Chemical Precipitation and/or Sintering of Alumina     79
  5.6  Diamond Abrasive  82
  5.7  CBN   93  
  5.8  Grain Size Distributions   98  
  5.9  Future Grain Developments   99
  5.10  Postscript   99
  References   100

Chapter 6 Specification of the Bond   103
  6.1 Introduction   103
  6.2 Single-Layer Wheels   103
  6.3 Electroplated (EP) Singl-Layer Wheels   103
  6.4 Brazed Singl-Layer Wheels   107
  6.5 Vitrified Bond Wheels for Conventional Wheels   108
  6.6 Vitrified Bonds for Diamond Wheels   114
  6.7 Vitrified Bonds for CBN   115
  6.8  Resin Bond Wheels   118
  6.9  Plastic Bonds   119
  6.10  Phenolic Resin Bonds   119
  6.11  Polyimide Resin Bonds   121  
  6.12  Metal Bonds   122
  6.13.1 Rubber     124
  6.13.2 Shellac     124
  6.13.3 Silicate     124
  References     124

Chapter 7 Dressing      127
  7.1  Introduction   127
  7.2  Traverse Dressing of Conventional Vitrified Wheels with Stationary Tools   127
  7.3  Traverse Dressing of Superabrasive Wheels with Stationary Tools     137
  7.4 Uniaxial Traverse Dressing of Conventional Wheels with Rotary Diamond Tools   138
  7.5 Uniaxial Traverse Dressing of Vitrified CBN Wheels with Rotary Diamond Tools   142
  7.6  Cros-Axis Traverse Dressing with Diamond Discs   149
  7.8  Truing and Conditioning of Superabrasive Wheels   160
  References   165

Chapter 8 Grinding Dynamics   167
  8.1 Introduction   167
  8.2  Forced and Regenerative Vibrations   167
  8.3  The Effect of Workpiece Velocity   168
  8.4  Geometrical Interference between Grinding Wheel and Workpiece   170
  8.5  Vibration Behavior of Various Grinding Operations   170
  8.6  Regenerative Self?Excited Vibrations   172
  8.7  Suppression of Grinding Vibrations  178
  8.8  Conclusions     183
  References   184


Chapter 9 Grinding Wheel Wear   185
  9.1  Three Types of Wheel Wear   185
  9.2  Wheel Wear Mechanisms   185
  9.3  Wear of the Abrasive Grains   186
  9.4  Bond Wear     191
  9.5  Assessment of Wheel Wear     192
  References 193

Chapter 10 Coolants     195
  10.1   Introduction     195
  10.2   Basic Properties of Grinding Fluids   195
  10.3  Types of Grinding Fluids     196
  10.4  Base Materials     197
  10.5  Additives     199
  10.6  Application Results     201
  10.7  Environmental Aspects   201
  10.8  The Supply System         201
  10.9   Grinding Fluid Nozzles         203
  10.10   Influence of the Grinding Fluid in Grinding  206
  10.10.1   Conventional Grinding     206
    References  213

Chapter 11 Monitoring of Grinding Processes
  11.1   The Need for Process Monitoring     217
  11.2   Sensors for Monitoring Process Variables   218
  11.3   Sensor for Monitoring the Grinding Wheel     228
  11.4   Sensors for Monitoring the Workpiece     233
  11.5  Sensors for Peripheral Systems   240
    References     244

Chapter 12 Economics of Grinding
  12.1   Introduction     247
  12.2   A Grinding Cost Comparison Based on an Available Grinding Machine     247  
  12.3   A Cost Comparison Including Capital Investment     249
  12.4   Cost Comparison Including Tooling     250
  12.5   Grinding as a Replacement for Other Processes     251
  12.6   Multitasking Machines for Hard?Turning with Grinding     252
  12.7   Summary     253
    References     253

  
    Part II
Application of Grinding  Processes  

Chapter 13 Grinding of Ductile Materials   
  13.1  Introduction   257
  13.2  Cast Irons   258
  13.3  Steels   259
  13.4  Hea-?Resistant Superalloys   263
    References   265

  
Chapter 14 Grinding of Ceramics   

  14.1  Introduction   267
  14.2   Background on Ceramic Materials   268
  14.3   Diamond Wheels for Grinding Ceramics   271
  14.4  Physics of Grinding Ceramics   274
  14.5  ELID Grinding of Ceramics   278
    References   282

Chapter 15 Grinding Machine Technology   
  15.1  The Machine Base     285
  15.2  Foundations   288
  15.3  Guideways   290
  15.4  Slideway Configurations   290
  15.5  Hydrostatic Slideways   294
  15.6   Recirculating Rolling Element Slideways   297
  15.7   Linear Axis Drives and Motion Control   299
  15.8  Elements of AC Servodrive Ballscrew Systems   299
  15.9  Linear Motor Drive Systems   305
  15.10   Spindle Motors and Grinding Wheel Drives   307
  15.11   Drive Arrangements for Large Conventional Wheels   307
  15.12  Drive Arrangements for Small Wheel Spindle Units   312
  15.13  Spindles for High?Speed Grinding   315
  15.14  Miscellaneous Wheel Spindles and Drives   316
  15.15  Rotary Dressing Systems   317
  15.16  Power and Stiffness Requirements for Rotary Dressers   319
  15.17  Rotary Dressing Spindle Examples   320
  15.18  Dressing Infeed Systems   325
    References   336

Chapter 16 Surface Grinding     
  16.1   Types of Surface Grinding Process     341
  16.2   Basics of Reciprocating Grinding   341
  16.3  Basics of Creep Grinding   346
  16.4   Basics of Speed?Stroke Grinding   353
  16.5   Successful Application of Creep Feed Grinding   356
  16.6  Face Grinding   381
  16.7  Fine Grinding   401
    Appendix 16.1 Lapping Kinematics   407
    References   412

Chapter 17 External Cylindrical Grinding
  17.1  The Basic Process   417
  17.2  High-Speed Grinding   421
  17.3  Automotive Camlobe Grinding   431
  17.4  Punch Grinding   439
  17.5  Crankshaft Grinding   442
  17.6  Roll Grinding   447
    References   450

Chapter 18 Internal Grinding   
  18.1   Introduction   453
  18.2   The Internal Grinding  Process   453
  18.3  Abrasive Type     455
  18.4  Process Parameters   458
  18.5  Machine Tool Selection   466
  18.6  Troubleshooting   474
    References     476

Chapter 19 Centerless Grinding     
  19.1   The Importance of Centerless Grinding     479
  19.2  Basic Process   480
  19.3  Basic Relationships   485
  19.4  Feed Processes   487
  19.5   Centerless Wheels and Dressing Geometry   90
  19.6  The Workrest   493
  19.7  Speed Control   494
  19.8  Machine Structure   496
  19.9  High Removal Rate Grinding   501
  19.10   Economic Evaluation of Conventional and CBN Wheels   506
  19.11  The Mechanics of Rounding   516
  19.12  Vibration Stability   527
  19.13  Dynamic Stability   537
  19.14   Avoiding Critical Frequencies   541
  19.15  Summary and Recommendations for Rounding   543
  19.16  Process Control   543
  References   546

Chapter 20   Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding   
  20.1   Introduction   549
  20.2   Ultrasonic Technology and Process Variants   549
  20.3   Ultrasoni-?Assisted Grinding with Workpiece Excitation   552
  20.4   Peripheral Grinding with Radial Ultrasonic Assistance   552
  20.5   Peripheral Grinding with Axial Ultrasonic Assistance   555
  20.6   Ultrasonic-Assisted Grinding with Excitation of the Wheel   557
    References   562

  Appendix 1: Glossary 563
  Appendix 2: Notation and Use of SI Units     591
  Use of Units   591
  Examples of Correct and Incorrect Practice     591
  Factors for Conversion between S1 Units and British Units (Values Rounded)   592
  Index   593
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REV 12/19/2011